Upper body; scapular belt.

Anterior side. Pectoral muscles & deltoids.

The pectoral muscles are flat and cover the chest at the front from the middle of the ribcage ( in the “V” openning) to the 1/2 way the collarbone and it inserts 1/4 down the humerus. This muscle shapes the armpit wall at the front. 

The following illustrations show the pectorals placed over the ribcage and attached to the sternum, 2/3 of the clavicle and the ribs at the bottom. It gets inserted under the head of the humerus.

Next to it, at the end of the collarbone, we find the shoulder muscle, the deltoids. It covers all the shoulder from the front, sides and back, giving shape to the arm at the top. It inserts 1/3 down the arm on the side.

Shoulder belt structure.

The structure of the Clavicles and the scapulas is essential to define the top of the chest and shoulders. This is what we call the shoulder belt. It is a bony structure that starts at the front of the chest with the clavicles, folloing its connexion with the shoulder blades through the acromion and continuing with the spine of the scapula in the back.  This structure sits on the ribcage.

The scapulas add volume shapping the upper body in the back and sides due to the amount of muscles connected to it.  

Trapecious muscle

In a atletic person is clear the division betweeen muscle and ligament, but it is quite rare to see this in an average person. Usually we won’t be able to point the difference, although it is good to know how it works as it will help to understand what we see.

In the following illustrations we marked the muscles of the abdominal walls on a sample of an atletic male, and a female. 


Contraction and extension of the obliques depending of the pose.

Arqueo de la espalda.

posicion de los hombros en referencia a la caja tor’acica.

Cinturon escapular.

Movimiento de las escapulas

Ligamento inguinal, forma la base de la barriga

posici’on del hombligo

Como se conectan los oblicuos

Parte posterior:

Breve introduccion de la zona lumbar


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Head studies summary

PDF Title


The complete guide to Anatomy for artists & illustrators

Author: Gottfried Bammes

This book is essential for learning more about the human figure as it is very complete. Includes proportions based on eight heads ( be aware that we are using 7.5 heads), bone structure explanation, balance and range of movement of the joins. The anatomy applied to the figure is not necessarily as accurate as in the Paul Richer book. This book also includes pictures of models for an applied explanation.

Artistic Anatomy

Author: Paul Richer

This book is excellent for learning anatomy from a medical perspective applied to art. Here we also find his 7.5 cannon explained. The illustrations are accurate, giving the precise location of muscles, layers and mapping of the human body. This book is used in official academies like the Florence academy.

MORFO: Anatomy for artists

Author: Michel Lauricella

In this book, Michel Lauricella presents both his artistic and systematic methods for drawing the human body–with drawing techniques from the écorché (showing the musculature underneath the skin) to sketches of models in action. In more than 1,000 illustrations, the human body is shown from a new perspective–from bone structure to musculature, from anatomical detail to the body in motion.

MORFO: Simplified forms

Author: Michel Lauricella

This small, portable book presents a unique perspective on the human body for artists to study and implement in their drawing work. In this book, artist and teacher Michel Lauricella simplifies the human body into basic shapes and forms, offering profound insight for artists of all kinds, sparking the imagination and improving one’s observational abilities. Rather than going the traditional route of memorizing a repertoire of poses, Lauricella instead stresses learning this small collection of forms, which can then be combined and shaped into the more complex and varied forms and postures we see in the living body.

MORFO: Skeleton and bone reference points

Author: Michel Lauricella

This book provides a simplified and practical vision of the human skeleton to help all artists in their drawing studies. Here you will find the most common and useful approaches to the body’s underlying skeleton and bone structure, which will fuel your imagination and enrich your observational skills as you draw the living form. In this small, portable guide, artist and teacher Michel Lauricella focuses on the essentials you need to know.

MORFO: Anatomy for the artist

Author: Sarah Simblet

This book is excellent for the quality of the drawings; very expressive, fresh and accurate. This book is recommended as a reference for the quality of work we can achieve in the art standards mostly applied to drawing. It is also a good source of images of bodies and living anatomy.