Bone structure of the main blocks

Bone structure of the main blocks

Before finding the anatomical points, we need to get familiar with the blocks’ anatomy to understand what we are doing. We do not need to memorize all this information, but it is good to know more about it as we will mention these terms often as we progress with the work. Some parts are pronounced on a surface level, like the ASIS ( Anterior Superior Iliac spine ) in the pelvis. Or the Sternum in the ribcage. However, some other parts of the anatomy, even when we do not see it at a surface level, we emntione them as they are the critical point for the attachment of muscles: for example, the AIIS ( Anterior inferior Illiac spine), where the rectus femoris of the quadriceps will be attached helping to shape the waist at that level. Or the Ischial protuberance, where hammer strings are attached to. It is suitable for the student to understand anatomy better as it helps shape the forms and apply logic to work.

The following diagrams mention the essential anatomy parts we will use throughout the course.

Comparative of simplification with real bones

Finding the Key points


  • The top limit of the front of the ribcage is actually 1/4 down.This is the top limit of the sternum.
  • From the top of the sternum, halfway down to the very bottom, we find the bottom limit of the sternum and the opening of the ‘V” shape.
  • Diving the bottom half again in half, we find the 8th rib protuberance.
  • The distance between the 8th rib protuberances equals the distance between the 8th rib and the Xiphoid protuberance.
  • In the back view, C7 is the highest point. The T9 is the pivoting point of the ribcage.


  • The ASIS is 1/4 down the highest point and 1/8 approx inside.
  • The pubic bone is 1/4 up from the bottom. This is also the lowest part of the coccyx bone and the insertion of the head of the femur. Furthermore, this meets the body’s middle line in the standing pose.
  • The Sacrum is in the centre, dividing the block into thirds.
  • The Illiac crest is an unmistakable landmark, providing shape to the upper part of the pelvic bone.

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Head studies summary

PDF Title


The complete guide to Anatomy for artists & illustrators

Author: Gottfried Bammes

This book is essential for learning more about the human figure as it is very complete. Includes proportions based on eight heads ( be aware that we are using 7.5 heads), bone structure explanation, balance and range of movement of the joins. The anatomy applied to the figure is not necessarily as accurate as in the Paul Richer book. This book also includes pictures of models for an applied explanation.

Artistic Anatomy

Author: Paul Richer

This book is excellent for learning anatomy from a medical perspective applied to art. Here we also find his 7.5 cannon explained. The illustrations are accurate, giving the precise location of muscles, layers and mapping of the human body. This book is used in official academies like the Florence academy.

MORFO: Anatomy for artists

Author: Michel Lauricella

In this book, Michel Lauricella presents both his artistic and systematic methods for drawing the human body–with drawing techniques from the écorché (showing the musculature underneath the skin) to sketches of models in action. In more than 1,000 illustrations, the human body is shown from a new perspective–from bone structure to musculature, from anatomical detail to the body in motion.

MORFO: Simplified forms

Author: Michel Lauricella

This small, portable book presents a unique perspective on the human body for artists to study and implement in their drawing work. In this book, artist and teacher Michel Lauricella simplifies the human body into basic shapes and forms, offering profound insight for artists of all kinds, sparking the imagination and improving one’s observational abilities. Rather than going the traditional route of memorizing a repertoire of poses, Lauricella instead stresses learning this small collection of forms, which can then be combined and shaped into the more complex and varied forms and postures we see in the living body.

MORFO: Skeleton and bone reference points

Author: Michel Lauricella

This book provides a simplified and practical vision of the human skeleton to help all artists in their drawing studies. Here you will find the most common and useful approaches to the body’s underlying skeleton and bone structure, which will fuel your imagination and enrich your observational skills as you draw the living form. In this small, portable guide, artist and teacher Michel Lauricella focuses on the essentials you need to know.

MORFO: Anatomy for the artist

Author: Sarah Simblet

This book is excellent for the quality of the drawings; very expressive, fresh and accurate. This book is recommended as a reference for the quality of work we can achieve in the art standards mostly applied to drawing. It is also a good source of images of bodies and living anatomy.